- More PyGame to make your brain hurt
- Import Modules
- Loading Resources
- Game Object Classes
- Back on to the Chimp sprite
- Initialize Everything
- Create The Background
- Put Text On The Background, Centered
- Display The Background While Setup Finishes
- Prepare Game Object
- Main Loop
- Handle All Input Events
- Update the Sprites
- Draw The Entire Scene
- Game Over
More PyGame to make your brain hurt
From last weeks pygame we are now going to move on to a more featureful demonstration. This lecture is based on the Chimp line by line tutorial found at the pygame site. Thanks to Pete Shinners for letting us base this lecture on his tutorial.
In the pygame examples there is a simple example named, "chimp". This example simulates a punchable monkey moving around a small screen with promises of riches and reward. The example itself is very simple, and a bit thin on errorchecking code. This example program demonstrates many of pygame's abilities, like creating a graphics window, loading images and sound files, rendering TTF text, and basic event and mouse handling.
The program and images can be found inside the standard source distribution of pygame. On windows look in the c:\Program Files\Pygame-Docs\examples directory. On Debian/Linux you can find the examples in /usr/share/doc/python2.2-pygame/examples/
With your text editor open up chimp.py in that directory.
You should have been able to run chimp.py from the command line. If not, go back to LectureOne and figure out how. As we go on you'll be changing a few things in the chimp.py, so you may want to make a backup copy.
This tutorial will go through the code block by block. Explaining how the code works. There will also be mention of how the code could be improved and what errorchecking could help out.
This is the code that imports all the needed modules into your program. It also checks for the availability of some of the optional pygame modules. Modules are a grouping of code, or a library.
import os, sys import pygame from pygame.locals import * if not pygame.font: print 'Warning, fonts disabled' if not pygame.mixer: print 'Warning, sound disabled'
In the next line, we import the pygame package. When pygame is imported it imports all the modules belonging to pygame. Some pygame modules are optional, and if they aren't found, their value is set to "None". None is like NULL in other programming languages.
There is a special pygame module named "locals". The members of this module are commonly used constants and functions that have proven useful to put into your program's global namespace. This locals module includes functions like "Rect" to create a rectangle object, and many constants like "QUIT, HWSURFACE" that are used to interact with the rest of pygame. Importing the locals module into the global namespace like this is entirely optional. If you choose not to import it, all the members of locals are always available in the pygame module.
Lastly, we decide to print a nice warning message if the font or sound modules in pygame are not available.
Now we are going to expand on what we did in the last lecture with loading images. We are also going to be adding a sound loading function.
We're going to add some error checking, and set the color key for the image. We put this code in a function so that we can reuse it to load multiple images without having to type all the code in every time we want to load an image.
This code is from chimp.py which should be open in your text editor.
def load_image(name, colorkey=None): fullname = os.path.join('data', name) try: image = pygame.image.load(fullname) except pygame.error, message: print Cannot load image:, name raise SystemExit, message image = image.convert() if colorkey is not None: if colorkey is -1: colorkey = image.get_at((0,0)) image.set_colorkey(colorkey, RLEACCEL) return image, image.get_rect()
Some new python concepts
For those of you new to python, we are now going to describe some of the concepts introduced here. Don't worry if you don't get them all, you'll probably need to read this section a few times. I have made links to websites that describe each of the concepts in more detail. You should probably go and read those sections as well.
def load_image(name, colorkey=None): fullname = os.path.join('data', name)
First two lines of the load_image function/
def is used to tell python that you are starting a new function. A function is a piece of code which does something. It means you don't need to retype code all the time. Instead of typing all that stuff out you can just call:
im = load_image("chimp.bmp")
Further on in the code you see the try, and except being used. This is for error handling. You try to load the image, and if there is an unexpected error the code in the except block gets called. Read up more about exceptions here http://www.honors.montana.edu/%7Ejjc/easytut/easytut/node18.html
Loading images explained
The load_image function takes the name of an image to load. It also optionally takes an argument it can use to set a colorkey for the image. A colorkey is used in graphics to represent a color of the image that is transparent.
The first thing this function does is create a full pathname to the file. In this example all the resources are in a "data" subdirectory. By using the os.path.join function, a pathname will be created that works for whatever platform the game is running on.
Remember that we can look at the documentation for functions in the interactive interpreter. In the interactive interpreter type:
import os.path help(os.path.join)
Next we load the image using the pygame.image.load function. We wrap this function in a try/except block, so if there is a problem loading the image, we can exit gracefully. After the image is loaded, we make an important call to the convert() function. This makes a new copy of a Surface and converts its color format and depth to match the display. This means blitting the image to the screen will happen as quickly as possible.
Images can be in many different color formats. For example RGB with 8 bits for red, green and blue. Or 8 bit indexed color, or RGBA (Red,Green,Blue,Alpha). The more bits used for each pixel on an image, the more colors it can show. For an explanation of surfaces check out http://pygame.org/docs/ref/Surface.html
Last, we set the colorkey for the image. If the user supplied an argument for the colorkey argument we use that value as the colorkey for the image. This would usually just be a color RGB value, like (255, 255, 255) for white. You can also pass a value of -1 as the colorkey. In this case the function will lookup the color at the topleft pixel of the image, and use that color for the colorkey.
Loading sound explained
def load_sound(name): class NoneSound: def play(self): pass if not pygame.mixer: return NoneSound() fullname = os.path.join('data', name) try: sound = pygame.mixer.Sound(fullname) except pygame.error, message: print Cannot load sound:, wav raise SystemExit, message return sound
Next is the function to load a sound file. The first thing this function does is check to see if the pygame.mixer module was imported correctly. If not, it returns a small class instance that has a dummy play method. This will act enough like a normal Sound object for this game to run without any extra error checking.
If you're wondering what a class is read up on them at these places:
You will need to know about classes for the sections below, where we make and describe the Fist, and Chimp classes.
This function is similar to the image loading function, but handles some different problems. First we create a full path to the sound image, and load the sound file inside a try/except block. Then we simply return the loaded Sound object.
Pygame can load a number of different sound files.
.ogg files. A free high quality lossy sound format. http://www.vorbis.com/
- .mp3 files. A popular lossy format. If you haven't heard of these, pull up a random teenager and ask them about it.
- .wav files. Of various types. These are usually uncompressed sound formats.
It can also open up mod files, and midi files for music.
Game Object Classes
Here we create two classes to represent the objects in our game. Almost all the logic for the game goes into these two classes. We will look over them one at a time here.
class Fist(pygame.sprite.Sprite): """moves a clenched fist on the screen, following the mouse""" def __init__(self): pygame.sprite.Sprite.__init__(self) #call Sprite initializer self.image, self.rect = load_image(fist.bmp, -1) self.punching = 0 def update(self): "move the fist based on the mouse position" pos = pygame.mouse.get_pos() self.rect.midtop = pos if self.punching: self.rect.move_ip(5, 10) def punch(self, target): "returns true if the fist collides with the target" if not self.punching: self.punching = 1 hitbox = self.rect.inflate(-5, -5) return hitbox.colliderect(target.rect) def unpunch(self): "called to pull the fist back" self.punching = 0
The players fist is represented by the class above.
It is derived from the Sprite class included in the pygame.sprite module. The init function is called when new instances of this class are created. The first thing we do is be sure to call the init function for our base class. This allows the Sprite's init function to prepare our object for use as a sprite. This game uses one of the sprite drawing Group classes. These classes can draw sprites that have an "image" and "rect" attribute. By simply changing these two attributes, the renderer will draw the current image at the current position.
Unlike in the previous lecture where we blit the image directly to the screen, here we put the images in sprite classes. This gives us some advantages. Mainly the sprite classes are used for organising drawing of images. We want to draw as little as possible, which the sprite classes can do for us by keeping track of where the images we draw go. If you want to know more about sprites read http://pygame.org/docs/tut/SpriteIntro.html.
All sprites have an update() method. This function is typically called once per frame. It is where you should put code that moves and updates the variables for the sprite. The update() method for the fist moves the fist to the location of the mouse pointer. It also offsets the fist position slightly if the fist is in the "punching" state.
The punch() and unpunch() methods change the punching state for the fist. The punch() method also returns a true value if the fist is colliding with the given target sprite.
Don't be a square; detour into the world of Rect
Ok a short detour from the Sprite classes to describe Rects. Rect objects are simply classes which represent a rectangle. However they are very featureful.
They are used throughout pygame to help you organise and optimize drawing images. They can be used for collision detection and moving images accross the screen. You can check to see if a point is within a rectangle. There are many things you can do with them. Just check out the documentation.
my_rect = pygame.Rect(20, 25, 40, 50)
That makes a Rect object with its top corner at x= 20 y = 25. It has a width of 40 pixels and a height of 50 pixels.
You can see that in the Fist.punch() method it uses a colliderect() call to see if the target(usually the rect for our unfortunate chimp) has collided with the fists rect attribute. It uses a slightly smaller rect than the fists rect, so that it is slightly harder to punch the chimp. It uses the Rect.inflate method to make a smaller rect.
Python note on docstrings
In this class we see docstrings being used. Docstrings are documentation or comments used to describe what functions do. Docstrings are not like normal comments, in that they are used to generate online documentation. When you do a:
>>> def x(): ... """prints the letter x""" ... print "x" ... >>> help(x) Help on function x in module __main__: x() prints the letter x >>> print x.__doc__ prints the letter x >>>
In this function the """prints the letter x""" is a doc string. A doc string is the line immediately after the start of a class or function declaration.
You can also access the docstring through the doc attribute.
Back on to the Chimp sprite
Ok, now we are going to explain the Chimp class.
class Chimp(pygame.sprite.Sprite): """moves a monkey critter across the screen. it can spin the monkey when it is punched.""" def __init__(self): pygame.sprite.Sprite.__init__(self) #call Sprite intializer self.image, self.rect = load_image('chimp.bmp', -1) screen = pygame.display.get_surface() self.area = screen.get_rect() self.rect.topleft = 10, 10 self.move = 9 self.dizzy = 0 def update(self): "walk or spin, depending on the monkeys state" if self.dizzy: self._spin() else: self._walk() def _walk(self): "move the monkey across the screen, and turn at the ends" newpos = self.rect.move((self.move, 0)) if self.rect.left < self.area.left or \ self.rect.right > self.area.right: self.move = -self.move newpos = self.rect.move((self.move, 0)) self.image = pygame.transform.flip(self.image, 1, 0) self.rect = newpos def _spin(self): "spin the monkey image" center = self.rect.center self.dizzy = self.dizzy + 12 if self.dizzy >= 360: self.dizzy = 0 self.image = self.original else: rotate = pygame.transform.rotate self.image = rotate(self.original, self.dizzy) self.rect = self.image.get_rect() self.rect.center = center def punched(self): "this will cause the monkey to start spinning" if not self.dizzy: self.dizzy = 1 self.original = self.image
The chimp class is doing a little more work than the fist, but nothing more complex. This class will move the chimp back and forth across the screen. When the monkey is punched, he will spin around to exciting effect. This class is also derived from the base Sprite class, and is initialized the same as the fist. While initializing, the class also sets the attribute "area" to be the size of the display screen.
The update function for the chimp simply looks at the current "dizzy" state, which is true when the monkey is spinning from a punch. It calls either the _spin or _walk method. These functions are prefixed with an underscore. This is just a standard python idiom which suggests these methods should only be used by the Chimp class. We could go so far as to give them a double underscore, which would tell python to really try to make them private methods, but we don't need such protection.
The _walk method creates a new position for the monkey by moving the current rect by a given offset. If this new position crosses outside the display area of the screen, it reverses the movement offset. It also mirrors the image using the pygame.transform.flip function. This is a crude effect that makes the monkey look like he's turning the direction he is moving.
The _spin method is called when the monkey is currently "dizzy". The dizzy attribute is used to store the current amount of rotation. When the monkey has rotated all the way around (360 degrees) it resets the monkey image back to the original unrotated version. Before calling the transform.rotate function, you'll see the code makes a local reference to the function simply named "rotate". There is no need to do that for this example, it is just done here to keep the following line's length a little shorter.
Note that when calling the rotate function, we are always rotating from the original monkey image. When rotating, there is a slight loss of quality. Repeatedly rotating the same image and the quality would get worse each time.
Also, when rotating an image, the size of the image will actually change. This is because the corners of the image will be rotated out, making the image bigger. We make sure the center of the new image matches the center of the old image, so it rotates without moving.
The last method is punched() which tells the sprite to enter its dizzy state. This will cause the image to start spinning. It also makes a copy of the current image named "original".
Before we can do much with pygame, we need to make sure its modules are initialized. In this case we will also open a simple graphics window. Now we are in the main() function of the program, which actually runs everything.
pygame.init() screen = pygame.display.set_mode((468, 60)) pygame.display.set_caption(Monkey Fever) pygame.mouse.set_visible(0)
The first line to initialize pygame takes care of a bit of work for us. It checks through the imported pygame modules and attempts to initialize each one of them. It is possible to go back and check if modules failed to initialize, but we won't bother here. It is also possible to take a lot more control and initialize each specific module by hand. That type of control is generally not needed, but is available if you desire.
Next we set up the display graphics mode. Note that the pygame.display module is used to control all the display settings. In this case we are asking for a simple skinny window. There is an entire separate tutorial on setting up the graphics mode, but if we really don't care, pygame will do a good job of getting us something that works. Pygame will pick the best color depth, since we haven't provided one.
Last we set the window title and turn off the mouse cursor for our window. Very basic to do, and now we have a small black window ready to do our bidding. Usually the cursor defaults to visible, so there is no need to really set the state unless we want to hide it.
Create The Background
Our program is going to have text message in the background. It would be nice for us to create a single surface to represent the background and repeatedly use that. The first step is to create the surface.
background = pygame.Surface(screen.get_size()) background = background.convert() background.fill((250, 250, 250))
This creates a new surface for us that is the same size as the display window. Note the extra call to convert() after creating the Surface. The convert with no arguments will make sure our background is the same format as the display window, which will give us the fastest results.
We also fill the entire background with a solid white-ish color. Fill takes an RGB triplet as the color argument.
Put Text On The Background, Centered
Now that we have a background surface, lets get the text rendered to it. We only do this if we see the pygame.font module has imported properly. If not, we just skip this section.
if pygame.font: font = pygame.font.Font(None, 36) text = font.render("Pummel The Chimp, And Win $$$", 1, (10, 10, 10)) textpos = text.get_rect() textpos.centerx = background.get_rect().centerx background.blit(text, textpos)
As you see, there are a couple steps to getting this done. First we must create the font object and render it into a new surface. We then find the center of that new surface and blit (paste) it onto the background.
The font is created with the font module's Font() constructor. Usually you will pass the name of a truetype font file to this function, but we can also pass None, which will use a default font. The Font constructor also needs to know the size of font we want to create.
We then render that font into a new surface. The render function creates a new surface that is the appropriate size for our text. In this case we are also telling render to create antialiased text (for a nice smooth look) and to use a dark grey color.
Next we need to find the centered position of the text on our display. We create a "Rect" object from the text dimensions, which allows us to easily assign it to the screen center.
Finally we blit (blit is like a copy or paste) the text onto the background image.
Display The Background While Setup Finishes
We still have a black window on the screen. Lets show our background while we wait for the other resources to load.
screen.blit(background, (0, 0)) pygame.display.flip()
This will blit our entire background onto the display window. The blit is self explanatory, but what about this flip routine?
In pygame, changes to the display surface are not immediately visible. Normally, a display must be updated in areas that have changed for them to be visible to the user. With double buffered displays the display must be swapped (or flipped) for the changes to become visible. In this case the flip() function works nicely because it simply handles the entire window area and handles both singlebuffered and doublebufferes surfaces.
Prepare Game Object
Here we create all the objects that the game is going to need.
whiff_sound = load_sound('whiff.wav') punch_sound = load_sound('punch.wav') chimp = Chimp() fist = Fist() allsprites = pygame.sprite.RenderPlain((fist, chimp)) clock = pygame.time.Clock()
First we load two sound effects using the load_sound function we defined above. Then we create an instance of each of our sprite classes. And lastly we create a sprite Group which will contain all our sprites.
We actually use a special sprite group named RenderPlain. This sprite group can draw all the sprites it contains to the screen. It is called RenderPlain because there are actually more advanced Render groups. But for our game, we just need simple drawing. We create the group named "allsprites" by passing a list with all the sprites that should belong in the group. We could later on add or remove sprites from this group, but in this game we won't need to.
The clock object we create will be used to help control our game's framerate. We will use it in the main loop of our game to make sure it doesn't run too fast.
Nothing much here, just an infinite loop.
while 1: clock.tick(60)
All games run in some sort of loop. The usual order of things is to check on the state of the computer and user input, move and update the state of all the objects, and then draw them to the screen. You'll see that this example is no different.
We also make a call to our clock object, which will make sure our game doesn't run faster than 60 frames per second.
Handle All Input Events
This is an extremely simple case of working the event queue.
for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == QUIT: return elif event.type == KEYDOWN and event.key == K_ESCAPE: return elif event.type == MOUSEBUTTONDOWN: if fist.punch(chimp): punch_sound.play() #punch chimp.punched() else: whiff_sound.play() #miss elif event.type == MOUSEBUTTONUP: fist.unpunch()
First we get all the available Events from pygame and loop through each of them. The first two tests see if the user has quit our game, or pressed the escape key. In these cases we just return from the main() function and the program cleanly ends.
Next we just check to see if the mouse button was pressed or released. If the button was pressed, we ask the fist object if it has collided with the chimp. We play the appropriate sound effect, and if the monkey was hit, we tell him to start spinning (by calling his punched() method).
Update the Sprites
Sprite groups have an update() method, which simply calls the update method for all the sprites it contains. Each of the objects will move around, depending on which state they are in. This is where the chimp will move one step side to side, or spin a little farther if he was recently punched.
Draw The Entire Scene
Now that all the objects are in the right place, time to draw them.
screen.blit(background, (0, 0)) allsprites.draw(screen) pygame.display.flip()
The first blit call will draw the background onto the entire screen. This erases everything we saw from the previous frame (slightly inefficient, but good enough for this game). Next we call the draw() method of the sprite container. Since this sprite container is really an instance of the "DrawPlain" sprite group, it knows how to draw our sprites. Lastly, we flip() the contents of pygame's software double buffer to the screen. This makes everything we've drawn visible all at once.
User has quit, time to clean up.
Cleaning up the running game in pygame is extremely simple. In fact since all variables are automatically destructed, we really don't have to do anything.
- Using the scale command to make the monkey smaller. Getting too good at spanking the monkey? We want to give that monkey a chance. So after every five times the monkey is hit, we want to make the monkey a bit smaller.
If you enjoyed this lecture, please consider leaving a tip.